Monday, May 25, 2020

Malari A Recognizable Disease Around The Globe - 2390 Words

Malaria is a recognizable disease around the globe. While significant efforts have been made since antimalarial treatments were introduced in the 1940s, the disease continues as an endemic world-wide. Ongoing efforts by global public health leaders and scientists continue to track disease patterns, causes, and effects on health outcomes to continuously work toward protecting and saving lives. Although current prevention efforts such as insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) have impacted the rates of malaria, other advances are being made to control and eradicate malaria. Novel interventions such as spatial targeting for predicting risk in endemic geographic regions, using microbes to eliminate mosquito†¦show more content†¦Cause of Disease Malaria is caused by a parasite (e.g., Plasmodium) that infects the female anopheles mosquito, which in turn feeds on humans as the host. Individuals are infected with the Plasmodium parasite via vector-borne transmission, but malaria can also be transmitted through blood transfusions, mother to unborn child (e.g. vertical transmission), or as a result of sharing needles contaminated with the blood from an infected individual. The symptoms of malaria can vary, with the most common being fever, malaise, weakness, gastrointestinal complaints (e.g., nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea), neurologic complaints, headaches, chills, cough, back pain, and myalgia (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013). Malaria can be serious or even fatal to a person who is infected. Identification and treatment of malaria needs to be done rapidly through laboratory testing and treatment with the use of antimalarial medications. Influence of Agent The agent in malaria is one of a pervasive parasite - Plasmodium sporozoites. The sporozoites collect in the salivary ducts of the female anopheles mosquito and are then transmitted to the next host (Kappe, Buscaglia, Nussenzweig, 2004). Transmission of sporozoites through salivation of the female anopheles mosquito is unrecognizable, which makes it to be such a difficult disease to control. Plasmodium sporozoites attach to the salivary glands by different micronemal proteins that

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Henrik Ibsen s A Doll s House - 1775 Words

The play A Doll House was written and published in 1879 by Henrik Ibsen and is set in 19the century Norway. Having discussed Norway’s perception of women, religious beliefs, political and economic development over the 1800s as well as the life of Ibsen himself and his play’s influence on feminism in Norway. Personally, I found that I lacked cultural knowledge of women in Norwegian society during this time while reading the play. I learned that women in Norway’s patriarchal society lived their lives according to the societal expectations at the time. They were expected to tend to their husbands or fathers needs but had to make sure to be independent on male figures. Both married and unmarried women had gender-specific roles and responsibilities whereby they had little rights to do otherwise until well into the 20th century. This led to the discussion of feminism in Norway. The subject of feminism was mentioned to have been increasing in popularity since the mid-18 00s. Since Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House was written for the cause of women, it had a huge influence on progression of feminism into the 20th century by raising awareness on contradicting Norway’s society norms. It was important to discuss the culture and context of the play since its plot and premise was based on a real-life event because Nora was based on a friend of Ibsen’s, Laura, whose husband sent her to an asylum following her fall into debt on his behalf. Political and economic development of the time wasShow MoreRelatedHenrik Ibsen s A Doll House1563 Words   |  7 Pages In the play, A Doll House by Henrik Ibsen, the title itself symbolizes the dependent and degraded role of the wife within traditional marriages. Ibsen portrayed the generous nature root into women by society, as well as the significant action of this nature, and lastly the need for them to find their own voice in a world ruled by men. Ibsen wrote this play in 1879, this is the era where women were obedient to men, tend the children until their husband came home, and stood by the Cult of DomesticityRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1717 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"A Doll, a Partner, and a Change† Social movement of women liberation toward equal rights and independence has been a big subject in human history. It happens not only in Europe but also all over the world. Though making progress, this movement has been advancing slowly and encountered backslashes from time to time. Maybe there is something deeply hidden which the society has not figured out yet, even women themselves. What do women want, freedom or good life? Most of the time, they are notRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1291 Words   |  6 Pages A Doll s House by Henrik Ibsen, is a play that has been written to withstand all time. In this play Ibsen highlights the importance of women’s rights. During the time period of the play these rights were neglected. Ibsen depicts the role of the woman was to stay at home, raise the children and attend to her husband during the 19th century. Nora is the woman in A Doll House who plays is portrayed as a victim. Michael Meyers said of Henrik Ibsen s plays: The common denominator in many of IbsenRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1288 Words   |  6 Pages Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House is based in the Victorian society of the 19th century. It assesses the many struggles and hardships that women faced because of marriage â€Å"laws† that were crucial during that time period. The society was male- dominated with no equality. Nora is the protagonist in A Doll’s House and the wife of a man named Torvald. This play is about Nora’s voyage to recognizing her self- determination and independence. She transforms from a traditional, reserved woman to a new, independentRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1298 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"There is beauty in truth, even if it s painful. Those who lie, twist life so that it looks tasty to the lazy, brilliant to the ignorant, and powerful to the weak. But lies only strengthen our defects. They don t teach anything, help anything, fix anything or cure anything. Nor do they develop one s character, one s mind, one s heart or one s soul.† (Josà © N. Harris). Nora Helmer’s choice to lie and deceive is inappropriate and wrong for women to do to her husband during this time period; itRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1037 Words   |  5 PagesHenrik Ibsen s A Doll s House is a work of literature genius. This three-act play involves many literary technics that are undermined by the average reader such as the fact that the plot shows the main characters Torvald and his wife Nora live the perfect life. An ironic paradox based around the fact that Nora and Torvald’s relationship is the complete opposite of perfect. Also, bringing upon a conflict as well, appearance versus reality. These little hidden meanings within stories are what areRead MoreA Doll s House : Henrik Ibsen962 Words   |  4 PagesDrama Analysis A Doll’s House (Henrik Ibsen) And Trifles (Susan Glaspell) In comparing both dramas, the overwhelming aspect of convergence between both is the open discussion of gender identity. Both dramas make similar points about what it means to be a woman. Modern society in both dramas is constructed with men holding power over women. This is seen in Trifles in how men like George Henderson and Mr. Hale are myopic. The premise of the drama is how women worry over trifles, and the dismissiveRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1421 Words   |  6 PagesIn A Doll’s House, Henrik Ibsen examines conventional roles of men and women in the nineteenth century. In the play, Nora exemplifies the conventional feminine standard during that period. She seems to be powerless and confines herself through high standard expectations, demonstrating what the role of a women would be as a wife and mother. The protagonist of A Doll’s House is a woman named Nora Helmer. Ibsen shows how Nora’s design of perfect life gradually transforms when her sec ret unravels. InRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen876 Words   |  4 PagesA Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen A Doll’s House takes place in the home of Torvald and Nora Helmer. Through conversation with Nora’s good friend Kristine Linde it is revealed that Mr. Helmer was ill around the same time Nora’s father died. Luckily Nora’s father left her enough money that Torvald and Nora could go on a life saving trip to Italy. But the truth comes out when we find out Nora’s father did not leave her a penny. We find out that Nora got a hold of the money through a loan but she signedRead MoreHenrik Ibsen s A Doll House Essay1501 Words   |  7 PagesHenrik Ibsen’s play â€Å"A Doll House† was set in the Victorian era, a time where women were highly respected. Women in this time period did not work, they had nannies to take care of their children and maids to take care of their homes. Many women had no real responsibilities, they spent their time having tea parties and socializing with their friends. Henrik Ibsen dared to show the realism of the Vict orian era while everyone else would only focus on the romantic aspect. In the play, â€Å"A Doll House†

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Children With Dementia And Parkinson s Disease - 1488 Words

1. Introduction Dementia is a collection of symptoms caused by disorders affecting the brain which impact on a person’s functioning, ranging from thinking to behaviour and the ability to perform ordinary tasks and there are different type of dementia with the most common types being Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia and Parkinson’s disease (Keast, 2015). In 2009, nearly two-thirds (62%) of people identified as having dementia or Alzheimer s disease were living in a health establishment such as a nursing home, an aged care hostel, or the cared component of a retirement village (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2012). People with dementia experience problems with communicative, cognitive and emotional tasks. 2. Immediate issues of†¦show more content†¦Her cognitive decline has an effect on her quality of life and function due to problems of memory, planning, language and attention. There is a risk of malnutrition as Wander is unable to feed herself and is reported to be refusing her meals hence, needing to be fed. The presence of verbal and physical aggression towards care staff is a challenging concern that needs immediate intervention for her safety and that of care staff. The patient has insomnia and this could be contributing to her aggression. She is reported to be calling out in both Polish and English and this indicates that she is having communication problems and this could be a barrier causing her to be frustrated as he cannot communicate her needs effectively. Wanda has a history of arthritis and pain is another issue for her that may be causing aggression. According to Ahn Horgas, (2014) pain in dementia is positively correlated with disruptive behaviours i.e. aggre ssion and agitation. 3. Stages of Alzheimer’s disease Alzheimer’s is an irreversible disease normally affecting the elderly population and is progressive in nature causing degeneration that leads to impairments in memory, reasoning, planning, and behaviour. It is a neurodegenerative disorder that adversely affects neurons in the brain, ultimately resulting in loss of memory and language, behavioural disturbances, and dependence on caregivers (Phillips, Baktir, Das, Lin Salehi, 2015, p. 1047). Alzheimer’s has 3

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Commonwealth Serum Laboratories

Question: Discuss about the Commonwealth Serum Laboratories. Answer: Company Description Commonwealth Serum Laboratories (CSL) is bio therapeutics company. It researches, manufactures new and innovative biotherapies used to save lives of people. Paul Perreault is the chief executive officer. The salary of Paul Perreault is $1771920 and he receives a bonus of 1139000 making the total compensation to be 2910920. The last dividend was paid by the company on 24th March of 81 cents AUD or 58cents in USD. The total assets of the company is $ 6401m in 2015. The company has more than 14000 employees and 1100 experts in the research and development areas. The 52 week high share price is 117.61 and the low share price is 85.40. Excel Spreadsheet Date Closing value CSL 4/29/2016 105.18 4/28/2016 103.94 4/27/2016 104.06 4/26/2016 104.38 4/25/2016 104.65 4/22/2016 104.65 4/21/2016 105 4/20/2016 104.25 4/19/2016 103.5 4/18/2016 103.37 4/15/2016 101.58 4/14/2016 99.93 4/13/2016 100.59 4/12/2016 100 4/11/2016 100.19 4/8/2016 101.25 4/7/2016 101.44 4/6/2016 100.35 4/5/2016 99.39 4/4/2016 101.31 4/1/2016 101 3/31/2016 101.44 3/30/2016 100.36 3/29/2016 98.57 3/28/2016 102.2 3/25/2016 102.2 3/24/2016 102.2 3/23/2016 100.63 3/22/2016 101.67 3/21/2016 100.5 3/18/2016 100.1 3/17/2016 101.85 3/16/2016 102.3 3/15/2016 102.35 3/14/2016 103.59 3/11/2016 103.58 3/10/2016 103.15 3/9/2016 104.7 3/8/2016 102.43 3/7/2016 103.15 Date Closing value of ASX 200 29-Apr-16 5,252.20 28-Apr-16 5,225.40 27-Apr-16 5,187.70 26-Apr-16 5,220.60 22-Apr-16 5,236.40 21-Apr-16 5,272.70 20-Apr-16 5,216.00 19-Apr-16 5,188.80 18-Apr-16 5,137.10 15-Apr-16 5,157.50 14-Apr-16 5,118.60 13-Apr-16 5,054.70 12-Apr-16 4,975.60 11-Apr-16 4,931.50 8-Apr-16 4,937.60 7-Apr-16 4,964.10 6-Apr-16 4,945.90 5-Apr-16 4,924.40 4-Apr-16 4,995.30 1-Apr-16 4,999.40 31-Mar-16 5,082.80 30-Mar-16 5,010.30 29-Mar-16 5,004.50 24-Mar-16 5,084.20 23-Mar-16 5,142.30 22-Mar-16 5,166.60 21-Mar-16 5,166.60 18-Mar-16 5,183.10 17-Mar-16 5,168.20 16-Mar-16 5,119.00 15-Mar-16 5,111.40 14-Mar-16 5,185.50 11-Mar-16 5,166.40 10-Mar-16 5,150.10 9-Mar-16 5,157.20 8-Mar-16 5,108.00 7-Mar-16 5,142.80 29-Apr-16 5,252.20 28-Apr-16 5,225.40 27-Apr-16 5,187.70 Overview It can be seen that the CSL shares performed similarly to the ASX200. With the decline of the ASX200, the share prices of CSL also declined till April and later both increased in similar proportions. 1. The major news for CSL for the given period are: 2. The company CSL Behring awards LEAD grants to help rare disease patient groups. The share price increased by 2.2% on 9th 3. The company announced dividends on 24th March and the share prices increased by 1.56%. 4. The share price decreased by 3.55% on 29th The ASX200 decreased by 98 points on the same day. 5. The company announced medicine for Hemophilia B in US on 21st The share prices increased after declining continuously for a week. 6. CSL Behring celebrates 100 years on 25th The prices increased by 1.1% on this day. The news have been published on Wsjcom. (2016). Wsjcom. Retrieved from Gain from shares Share Price on 7th March = $103.15 Thus Number of shares of CSL purchased for $5000= 48.47 ~48 shares The price of the shares on 29th April = $105.18 Thus the total price of the shares = 48*105.18 = 5048.64 Thus profit from the shares = $48.64 Buy/ Sell shares The company has started growing again with the increase in shares prices. The calculation of various ratios shows that the company has improved its profitability ratios and the net profits has also increased compared to previous year. The company is one of the biggest player in the industry and has huge growth potential. Also the company has acquired Novartis Influenza will help company increase sales and the company has planned huge investments in RD. Thus in the coming future, the company will be able to capitalize on these investments. Hence it makes more sense to hold on the current investments. Key Financial Data 2015 US$m Revenue 5458.6 Interest Expense 59.6 EBIT 1773.6 Net Profit Before Tax 1714 Net Profit After Tax 1379 Current Assets 3339.1 Total Assets 6401 Current Liabilities 936.1 Total Liabilities 3654.1 Total Equity 2746.9 Ratio Analysis Profitability Ratio The following are the profitability ratios Gross margin ratio = Gross profit/ Total sales Operating margin = Operating profit/ Total sales Return on Assets = Average total Assets/ Total sales For CSL, CSL 2015 2014 Gross Margin 0.522607 0.511884 Return on assets 1.161351 1.176745 Operating margin 0.314 0.300724 It can be seen that the gross margin of the company has increased since the last year. Thus the company has reduced the additional expenses and increased profitability. The operating margin has also improved. Thus the costs related to the sales and other administrative expenses are better utilized to improve profits. The return on assets tell the additionally increase in sales due to additional assets by the company. The return on assets has decreased. Thus the company should focus on utilizing its assets in a better way to improve the net profits. The biggest competitor of CSL is Baxter. The profitability ratios of Baxter are Baxter 2015 Gross Margin 0.415931 Return on assets 2.363212 Operating margin 0.045044 CSL has performed better than Baxter in case of profitability margin but the company needs to utilize its assets in a better way. Activity ratio The following are the Activity ratios Inventory Turnover ratio = Cost of goods sold/ Average Inventory Total assets turnover = Sales / Average total assets Accounts Payable to sales ratio = Accounts Payable/ Sales For CSL, 2015 2014 Inventory turnover 1.532 1.583 Total assets turnover 0.861 0.849 Accounts Payable to sales ratio 0.128 0.118 Thus the figures of activity ratio shows that the company has decreased inventory ratio compared to last year. Thus the company had more capital tied up in the inventory compared to last year. The accounts payable to sales ratios shows that the company has more creditors per unit of sale. Thus the creditors are willing to lend more to the company. Thus overall the company has improved since last year. Baxter 2015 Inventory turnover 3.660 Total assets turnover 0.423 Accounts Payable to sales ratio 0.267 Comparing with Baxter, it can be seen the company has better activity ratios than CSL. Liquidity Ratio The following are the Activity ratios For CSL, 2015 2014 Current ratio 3.567 3.795 Quick Ratio 1.692 1.848 Interest times earned ratio 29.758 31.270 All the ratios have decreased when compared to the previous year. The higher the current and quick ratio, the better it is for company to pay its current liabilities. The company should focus on improving its Liquidity ratio which might be low because of its acquisition of Novartis Influenza Baxter 2015 Current ratio 2.051 Quick Ratio 1.773 Interest times earned ratio 3.563 Comparing with Baxter, CSL has better interest earned ratio and current ratio than that of Baxter. However, the company has more investment in inventory which reduces its quick ratio References Accounts Payable (A/P) to sales ratio. (n.d.). Retrieved from Profitability Ratios. (n.d.). Retrieved from Liquidity ratios. (n.d.). Retrieved from Activity ratios. (n.d.). Retrieved from Profitability Ratios. (n.d.). Retrieved from Corporate Profile CSL. (n.d.). Retrieved from Baxter annual report 2015. Retrieved from Yahoo finance. (n.d). Retrieved from

Thursday, April 9, 2020

War Humanity Where Do We Go From Here Essay Example For Students

War Humanity: Where Do We Go From Here? Essay WAR AND HUMANITY: WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE?. There is an average of twenty ongoing wars in the world at any given time. Some are internal civil wars, others are between nations. But the purpose of this thesis is not to report warfare, but the act of it. This includes the evolution of conventional and nuclear warfare, the potential effect of a nuclear war and why it is necessary for nations to fight war. This analysis will be based on a study of Gwyn dwyer?s seven-part series, ? War ?. The only other references used to compound this thesis will be statements from former heads of state, as corresponding to the subject of war. War is an indispensable part of civilization an is found at every chapter of human history. It is the culmination of the basic survival instinct when provoked. In the early centuries, traditional warfare employed the use of hoplite soldiers and cavalry who met at a scheduled location and fought reciprocally. The seventeenth century changed the rules of warfare, beginning with Napoleon, who increased the scale of battle in the Baradino church in 1812. We will write a custom essay on War Humanity: Where Do We Go From Here? specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The French Revolution marked the rise of modern nationalism, with civilians volunteering to join the army. The concept of National Mobilization was introduced, but not effected until the American Civil war. The Industrial Revolution produced new weapons, such as the machine-gun and the tank. These weapons assured a greater scale of destruction than was formerly accomplished. The two world wars marked the greatest events in modern history. Apart from discarding traditional for what was termed ? conventional? warfare, they also disrupted the world order and set the stage for global destruction. With each war, there were new technological developments in weaponry, which were naturally followed at a slower pace, by strategy. For the first time, on September 15th, 1915, combat was introduced on a civilian front, by the London bombing. Total war was a new idea developed to incorporate enemy civilians as targets as they were the backbone of the war industry. The atomic bombings of Nagasaki and Hiroshima are perhaps the best demonstration of the evolution of chemical warfare and its destruction potential. What was then known as Conventional warfare has become like an endangered species. Many nations have resorted to the accumulation of nuclear technology to protect their territoriality. Some of these are the U.S, Russia, the U.K, France, China, Israel, India and possibly Iraq. Ironically, the threat of nuclear war serves as the best prevention of war today. Nuclear weapons are possibly the greatest threat to humanity, besides global warming and the comet aimed for earth, and also the major stabilizing factor for world peace. Robert Oppenheimer said of the atomic bomb, after it was built, ?I am become death, the Destroyer of Worlds. ? This statement is more accurate of the power of the nuclear bomb. There are presently over a thousand nuclear warheads in Europe, which has been predicted to be the battlefront of World War III. While the U.S claims that the use of their nuclear devices will only be if absolutely necessary, the Russians guarantee a deadly total retaliation. When does it become necessary to fight a nuclear war?. When one side attacks the enemy?s nuclear bases perhaps. The end of civilization would be reduced to the absurdly primitive notion of ?use?em or lose?em?. While Nuclear technology can effectively destroy the world, it also serves as the best medium of peace-keeping. This is what Thomas Alva Edison envisioned when he predicted, ?There will one day spring from the brain of science a machine or force so fearful in its potentialities, so absolutely terrifying that even man, the fighter, who will dare torture and death in order to inflict torture and death, will be appalled and so abandon war forever. While man?s mind can create, man?s character can control.? His optimism and faith in the human race should be applauded. But in this age of corrupt and irresponsible leadersand they do exist, the future could very well boil down to a mistake made by an irrational man acting out his childhood war fantasies. .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee , .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee .postImageUrl , .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee , .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee:hover , .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee:visited , .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee:active { border:0!important; } .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee:active , .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Women Poetry of world war one Essay Why is war necessary?. Is it merely to satisfy a basic .

Monday, March 9, 2020

Whts New in the New Economy essays

Whts New in the New Economy essays Whats New In The New Economy? When you picture the economy of America you can only visualize prosperity. Americas economy is a new economy and the reason behind that is the technology involved in every action taken towards the economy. People dont run the economy the computers and the Internet run the economy. This country is entering a digital economy. Its not at the same level it was in the 1920s when the entire United States was thrown in the well of depression. America has pulled itself in to a new revolutionized IT economy. The new economy competition at the workplace brings out the best and also the worst in companies. Those companies that tend to be at a higher standard invest their employees on training, quality improvements, customer satisfaction and research and development. The new economy brings higher paying job to higher skilled workers the demand is extremely high for education. The jobs that need to be filled are mostly attainable, to students of educational facilities who are enhancing their teachings, and up grading the material learned in the courses day by day. As the new technology is developed there needs to be educated people who can work with or on the new technology. The new economy also affects the unions, which benefit their members with increased comfort with their work benefits, hours and pay. The way the economy runs is the way our lives run. Technology is sprouting growth so fast that older assumptions on inflation productivity and profits etc. no longer hold. The new economys jobs are making themselves more flexible to the working parents who. Companies are flexing hours and days in order to accompany the kids and their parents. The new economy is also drastically fixing problems, which involve neglect from the children of working parents. Not to mention that the income and comfort of living for the ...

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Structure of law firms Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Structure of law firms - Essay Example They view creeping commercialism as the root of the problem. â€Å"Law as a business? 7D-that is, a money-making trade-is seen as the antithesis of the public service ideal upon which the legal profession was founded. The idea that professionalism is grounded in public service has its roots deep in the history of Anglo-American law. In the distant past when the French speaking Norman kings dispensed justice to an Anglo-  Saxon populace, it was necessary for parties to be represented by someone who could speak the language of the court.  These representatives were inevitably nobles who served out of fealty to their king. For such early advocates, service rather than profit was the reason to assume this role. English barristers today do not accept a fee, but rather receive an â€Å"honorarium† in acknowledgement of this tradition of public service.1 However, ethical rules of the courts and bar associations form the fundamentals of practicing law in most American states. Cas e in point, the state of New York requires lawyers operating in the state to act in accordance to the New York Code of Professional Responsibility.2 1. Law firm structure in General By tradition, the organization of law firms is that of general partnerships. While a majority of law firms registers limited liability partnerships to shelter associates, or members, from explicit liability entirely or to a certain extent, the most fundamental organizational structure has been general partnership. The rise to partnership position in a law firm has been the biggest indicator of professional and personal success in law. In this case, â€Å"I have made partner† or â€Å"Making partner† are two phrases that occupy lawyers careers as they use it as a yardstick of success in private practice. In effect, lawyers draw a lot of satisfaction when referred as a partner, since the tag shows accomplishments in a lawyer’s private practice career. Thus, notwithstanding the all-too- common generational disparities, associates-the subordinate members- in law firms always desire to â€Å"make partners† in a law firm.3 In comparison to Saudi Arabia, lawyers in America have the capability of establishing professional organizations using an assortment of methods. According to an Ethics Opinion of the New York County Lawyers' Association, â€Å"A law firm may be structured as a professional corporation (PC), a limited liability company (LLC), or a limited liability partnership (LLP) without, by its structure alone, violating any ethical standard.†4 Conversely, the interpretation of Law Governing Lawyers states, â€Å"A lawyer may practice as a solo practitioner, as an employee of another lawyer or law firm, or as a member of a law firm constituted as a partnership, professional corporation, or similar entity.†5 In the comment of the restatement of Law Governing Lawyers, they mention that: A law firm established as a partnership is generally subje ct to partnership law with respect to questions concerning creation, operation, management, and dissolution of the firm. Originally, in order to achieve certain tax savings, law firms were permitted in most states to constitute themselves as professional corporations. Most such laws permitted that form to be elected even by solo practitioners or by one or more lawyers who, through their professional corporation, became partners in a law partnership. Pursuant to amendments to the partnership law in many states in the early 1990s, associated lawyers may