Thursday, August 27, 2020
The book begins with Ender getting his screen off. A screen is something that they however on the rear of these people groups necks to check whether they are a decent contender to be a general to battle the buggers. The buggers are outsiders. Indeed, since he isn't observed any longer individuals who have for the longest time been itching to battle him would now be able to battle them. He winds up winning the entirety of the battles and he returns home. Notably, removing his screen was a test to perceive how he would deal with individuals that battle him. A general at that point discloses that he need to send Ender to fight school so he can figure out how to battle in space. Ender chooses to go. At the point when he arrives he discovers that it is extremely intense. He winds up executing 2 children and breaking include less quantities of bones in the 4 years that he is there. While he is there he plays a computer generated simulation game. At the point when he beats the game the PC makes up a spot called the apocalypse. There are some extremely upsetting things here. In the long run Ender graduates fight school (2 years sooner that anyone has ever graduated, he's a virtuoso.) He at that point goes to order school were he figures out how to control armadas of star ships. They put him in a test system and he is given numerous missions to fly. At that point one day his monitors state that today is his last strategic they grade him. He up operators an entire planet and countless boats. He winds up winning by utilizing a distinct advantage on the planet that explodes it. At the point when he completes the fight he understands that everybody is cheering behind him. At the point when he inquires as to why they reveal to him that the entirety of his missions were genuine ones against the buggers and that he had quite recently devastated the entirety of the buggers. My preferred character in this book is Ender. He is my preferred character for some reasons. One explanation is that he is truly savvy. He has a photographic memory and he has a 200 IQ. He additionally could out shrewd grown-ups when he was 5. Another motivation behind why I like him is on the grounds that he jumps at the chance to play computer games. He says that they make him much more astute. Another reasons why I like Ender is on the grounds that he doesn't let individuals exploit him.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Advantage OF SMOKING 1. Smoking brings down danger of knee-substitution medical procedure While smokers may become bankrupt purchasing a pack of cigarettes, they can in any event set aside cash by maintaining a strategic distance from knee-substitution medical procedure. Amazing outcomes from another examination have uncovered that men who smoke had less danger of experiencing absolute joint substitution medical procedure than the individuals who never smoked. The investigation, from the University of Adelaide in Australia, shows up in the July issue of the diary Arthritis and Rheumatism. What could be the association? Knee-substitution medical procedure was progressively basic among joggers and the large smokers once in a while run and they are less inclined to be sullenly obese.After controlling for age, weight and exercise, the scientists were at a misfortune to clarify the clear, yet slight defensive impacts of smoking for osteoporosis. It may be the case that the nicotine in tob acco forestalls ligament and joint weakening. 2. Smoking brings down danger of Parkinson's infection Numerous investigations have recognized the uncanny opposite connection among smoking and Parkinson's malady. Long haul smokers are some way or another ensured against Parkinson's and its not on the grounds that smokers kick the bucket of different things prior. The latest, all around led study was distributed in a March 2010 issue of the diary Neurology.Far from deciding a reason for the defensive impact, these scientists found that the quantity of years spent smoking, more so than the quantity of cigarettes smoked day by day, made a difference more for a more grounded defensive impact. Harvard scientists were among the first to give persuading proof that smokers were more averse to create Parkinson's. In an examination distributed in Neurology in March 2007, these analysts found the defensive impact melts away after smokers quit. What's more, they deduced in their extraordinary log ical way that they hadn't the faintest idea with respect to why. 3.Smoking brings down danger of stoutness Smoking Ã¢â¬ and, specifically, the nicotine in tobacco smoke Ã¢â¬ is a hunger suppressant. This has been known for a considerable length of time, going back to indigenous societies in America in the pre-Columbus time. Tobacco organizations got on by the 1920s and started focusing on ladies with the draw that smoking would make them more slender. An examination distributed in the July 2011 issue of the diary Physiology ; Behavior, in certainty is one of many expressing that the inescapable weight gain after stopping smoking is a significant boundary in getting individuals to stop, second just to addiction.The connection among smoking and weight control is mind boggling: Nicotine itself goes about as both an energizer and craving suppressant; and the demonstration of smoking triggers conduct adjustment that prompts smokers to nibble less. Smoking additionally may make food les s delicious for certain smokers, further checking hunger. As a hunger suppressant, nicotine seems to follow up on a piece of the mind called the nerve center, at any rate in mice, as uncovered in an investigation by Yale scientists distributed in the June 10, 2011 issue of the diary Science. No decent specialist would suggest smoking for weight control, given the poisonous stuff going with cigarettes.This late Yale study, be that as it may, offers a suspicion of trust in a protected eating routine medication to enable large individuals to control their cravings. 4. Smoking brings down danger of death after some respiratory failures Compared with non-smokers, smokers who have had coronary failures appear to have lower death rates and increasingly ideal reactions to two sorts of treatment to expel plaque from their courses: fibrinolytic treatment, which is fundamentally medicine; and angioplasty, which evacuates the plaque by embeddings inflatables or stents into the supply routes. Th ere's a trick, though.The motivation behind why smokers have coronary episodes is that smoke scars the veins, permitting fat and plaque to develop in any case. Thus, one hypothesis with regards to why smokers show improvement over non-smokers after such treatments is that they are more youthful, encountering their first respiratory failure around 10 years before the non-smoker. An examination distributed in an August 2005 issue of the American Heart Journal, notwithstanding, states that age alone isn't sufficient to completely clarify the endurance contrasts and that Ã¢â¬Å"the smoker's oddity is fit as a fiddle. Ã¢â¬ No elective speculations have been advanced since. 5. Smoking enables the heart to sedate clopidogrel work betterClopidogrel is a medication used to hinder blood clumps for those patients experiencing coronary conduit ailment and other circulatory illnesses prompting strokes and respiratory failures. Smoking appears to help clopidogrel carry out its responsibility b etter. An investigation by Korean scientists in the October 2010 issue of the diary Thrombosis Research expands upon work by Harvard analysts distributed in 2009 that exhibits the advantage of smoking at any rate 10 cigarettes every day. It appears that something in tobacco smoke initiates certain proteins called cytochromes, which convert clopidogrel into an increasingly dynamic state.Again, no decent specialist is urging patients to begin smoking to take advantage of clopidogrel. Be that as it may, this and the other four Ã¢â¬Å"benefitsÃ¢â¬ of smoking uncover how tobacco Ã¢â¬ maybe much the same as other possibly harmful plants Ã¢â¬ might contain certain synthetic concoctions of genuine helpful worth. 6. Smoking Relieves Stress This is the most widely recognized thing you get notification from smokers about the advantages of smoking. This is on the grounds that cigarettes make a bunch of conditions that help the body manage uneasiness, stress, and wretchedness. 7. Smoking Re laxes Your BreathingThe way you inhale when you smoke enables your body to unwind and quiet down. For individuals who have alarm tackles or stress issues, Doctors suggest patients practice a kind of breathing called unwinding relaxing. In addition to other things, it includes bringing a full breath into the lungs and holding it in for a second or two preceding breathing out. This is actually similar to the demonstration of smoking. This sort of breathing eases back your pulse and alleviates strain in your muscles, particularly your neck and upper back, which worry in distressing circumstances. 8. Outside Smoke Breaks Calm You DownIf you go outside for smoke breaks, this basic demonstration can truly assist you with managing your pressure. State if youÃ¢â¬â¢re in a battle with your life partner or near the cutoff time on a significant undertaking for work, going out or office to step outside for a smoke break causes you manage the pressure. * You get a break from your stressor * Yo u get beyond any confining influence and natural air * You leave the upsetting condition * You have the opportunity to consider your issues from a target purpose of viewÃ¢ * The nature and sky outside enables your brain to quiet down and loosen up 9.Nicotine is an Anxiety and Depression Medication The nicotine in cigarettes is likewise a central point of pressure alleviation. Nicotine is a substance which gently and incidentally stops the sentiments of nervousness and gloom. After a breathe in of tobacco smoke, the nicotine responds in your mind science inside seven seconds. Nicotine causes the mind to feel better, and stops the chain response uneasiness and wretchedness can have inside the cerebrum. It is nothing unexpected that 1/3 of nicotine addicts guarantee to have sorrow or tension issues. Cigarettes are an incredible type of self drug.
Friday, August 21, 2020
Blog Archive B-School Chart of the Week How Many Board Members Boast MBAs Although quantifying a schoolâs profile certainly does not tell you everything, it can sometimes be helpful in simplifying the many differences between the various MBA programs. Each week, we bring you a chart to help you decide which of the schoolsâ strengths speak to you. Last week, the New York Times DealBook featured an article assessing board member pay on Wall Streetâ"pay that tops out at $488,709 for Goldman Sachs directors in 2011. At JPMorgan Chase, despite its status as one of the largest financial institutions, directors received the lowest average pay in 2012, at $278,194. We thought we would examine these Wall Street governing boards to see if any members have earned MBAs from top business schools. As it turns out, 4/13 on Goldmanâs board of directors are MBAs, as are 5/14 at Morgan Stanley, 4/8 at Citigroup, 3/11 at JPMorgan Chase and 5/16 at Wells Fargo. Of the 62 aggregate board members of the five institutions, we found that a total of 21 were MBA holders. Share ThisTweet B-School Charts
Monday, May 25, 2020
Malaria is a recognizable disease around the globe. While significant efforts have been made since antimalarial treatments were introduced in the 1940s, the disease continues as an endemic world-wide. Ongoing efforts by global public health leaders and scientists continue to track disease patterns, causes, and effects on health outcomes to continuously work toward protecting and saving lives. Although current prevention efforts such as insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) have impacted the rates of malaria, other advances are being made to control and eradicate malaria. Novel interventions such as spatial targeting for predicting risk in endemic geographic regions, using microbes to eliminate mosquitoÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Cause of Disease Malaria is caused by a parasite (e.g., Plasmodium) that infects the female anopheles mosquito, which in turn feeds on humans as the host. Individuals are infected with the Plasmodium parasite via vector-borne transmission, but malaria can also be transmitted through blood transfusions, mother to unborn child (e.g. vertical transmission), or as a result of sharing needles contaminated with the blood from an infected individual. The symptoms of malaria can vary, with the most common being fever, malaise, weakness, gastrointestinal complaints (e.g., nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea), neurologic complaints, headaches, chills, cough, back pain, and myalgia (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013). Malaria can be serious or even fatal to a person who is infected. Identification and treatment of malaria needs to be done rapidly through laboratory testing and treatment with the use of antimalarial medications. Influence of Agent The agent in malaria is one of a pervasive parasite - Plasmodium sporozoites. The sporozoites collect in the salivary ducts of the female anopheles mosquito and are then transmitted to the next host (Kappe, Buscaglia, Nussenzweig, 2004). Transmission of sporozoites through salivation of the female anopheles mosquito is unrecognizable, which makes it to be such a difficult disease to control. Plasmodium sporozoites attach to the salivary glands by different micronemal proteins that
Thursday, May 14, 2020
The play A Doll House was written and published in 1879 by Henrik Ibsen and is set in 19the century Norway. Having discussed NorwayÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of women, religious beliefs, political and economic development over the 1800s as well as the life of Ibsen himself and his playÃ¢â¬â¢s influence on feminism in Norway. Personally, I found that I lacked cultural knowledge of women in Norwegian society during this time while reading the play. I learned that women in NorwayÃ¢â¬â¢s patriarchal society lived their lives according to the societal expectations at the time. They were expected to tend to their husbands or fathers needs but had to make sure to be independent on male figures. Both married and unmarried women had gender-specific roles and responsibilities whereby they had little rights to do otherwise until well into the 20th century. This led to the discussion of feminism in Norway. The subject of feminism was mentioned to have been increasing in popularity since the mid-18 00s. Since Henrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House was written for the cause of women, it had a huge influence on progression of feminism into the 20th century by raising awareness on contradicting NorwayÃ¢â¬â¢s society norms. It was important to discuss the culture and context of the play since its plot and premise was based on a real-life event because Nora was based on a friend of IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s, Laura, whose husband sent her to an asylum following her fall into debt on his behalf. Political and economic development of the time wasShow MoreRelatedHenrik Ibsen s A Doll House1563 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages In the play, A Doll House by Henrik Ibsen, the title itself symbolizes the dependent and degraded role of the wife within traditional marriages. Ibsen portrayed the generous nature root into women by society, as well as the significant action of this nature, and lastly the need for them to find their own voice in a world ruled by men. Ibsen wrote this play in 1879, this is the era where women were obedient to men, tend the children until their husband came home, and stood by the Cult of DomesticityRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1717 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"A Doll, a Partner, and a ChangeÃ¢â¬ Social movement of women liberation toward equal rights and independence has been a big subject in human history. It happens not only in Europe but also all over the world. Though making progress, this movement has been advancing slowly and encountered backslashes from time to time. Maybe there is something deeply hidden which the society has not figured out yet, even women themselves. What do women want, freedom or good life? Most of the time, they are notRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1291 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages A Doll s House by Henrik Ibsen, is a play that has been written to withstand all time. In this play Ibsen highlights the importance of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. During the time period of the play these rights were neglected. Ibsen depicts the role of the woman was to stay at home, raise the children and attend to her husband during the 19th century. Nora is the woman in A Doll House who plays is portrayed as a victim. Michael Meyers said of Henrik Ibsen s plays: The common denominator in many of IbsenRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1288 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Henrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House is based in the Victorian society of the 19th century. It assesses the many struggles and hardships that women faced because of marriage Ã¢â¬Å"lawsÃ¢â¬ that were crucial during that time period. The society was male- dominated with no equality. Nora is the protagonist in A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House and the wife of a man named Torvald. This play is about NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s voyage to recognizing her self- determination and independence. She transforms from a traditional, reserved woman to a new, independentRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1298 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"There is beauty in truth, even if it s painful. Those who lie, twist life so that it looks tasty to the lazy, brilliant to the ignorant, and powerful to the weak. But lies only strengthen our defects. They don t teach anything, help anything, fix anything or cure anything. Nor do they develop one s character, one s mind, one s heart or one s soul.Ã¢â¬ (JosÃ © N. Harris). Nora HelmerÃ¢â¬â¢s choice to lie and deceive is inappropriate and wrong for women to do to her husband during this time period; itRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1037 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHenrik Ibsen s A Doll s House is a work of literature genius. This three-act play involves many literary technics that are undermined by the average reader such as the fact that the plot shows the main characters Torvald and his wife Nora live the perfect life. An ironic paradox based around the fact that Nora and TorvaldÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship is the complete opposite of perfect. Also, bringing upon a conflict as well, appearance versus reality. These little hidden meanings within stories are what areRead MoreA Doll s House : Henrik Ibsen962 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDrama Analysis A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House (Henrik Ibsen) And Trifles (Susan Glaspell) In comparing both dramas, the overwhelming aspect of convergence between both is the open discussion of gender identity. Both dramas make similar points about what it means to be a woman. Modern society in both dramas is constructed with men holding power over women. This is seen in Trifles in how men like George Henderson and Mr. Hale are myopic. The premise of the drama is how women worry over trifles, and the dismissiveRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen1421 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House, Henrik Ibsen examines conventional roles of men and women in the nineteenth century. In the play, Nora exemplifies the conventional feminine standard during that period. She seems to be powerless and confines herself through high standard expectations, demonstrating what the role of a women would be as a wife and mother. The protagonist of A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House is a woman named Nora Helmer. Ibsen shows how NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s design of perfect life gradually transforms when her sec ret unravels. InRead MoreA Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen876 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesA DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House by Henrik Ibsen A DollÃ¢â¬â¢s House takes place in the home of Torvald and Nora Helmer. Through conversation with NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s good friend Kristine Linde it is revealed that Mr. Helmer was ill around the same time NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s father died. Luckily NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s father left her enough money that Torvald and Nora could go on a life saving trip to Italy. But the truth comes out when we find out NoraÃ¢â¬â¢s father did not leave her a penny. We find out that Nora got a hold of the money through a loan but she signedRead MoreHenrik Ibsen s A Doll House Essay1501 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHenrik IbsenÃ¢â¬â¢s play Ã¢â¬Å"A Doll HouseÃ¢â¬ was set in the Victorian era, a time where women were highly respected. Women in this time period did not work, they had nannies to take care of their children and maids to take care of their homes. Many women had no real responsibilities, they spent their time having tea parties and socializing with their friends. Henrik Ibsen dared to show the realism of the Vict orian era while everyone else would only focus on the romantic aspect. In the play, Ã¢â¬Å"A Doll HouseÃ¢â¬
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
1. Introduction Dementia is a collection of symptoms caused by disorders affecting the brain which impact on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s functioning, ranging from thinking to behaviour and the ability to perform ordinary tasks and there are different type of dementia with the most common types being AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease, vascular dementia and ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease (Keast, 2015). In 2009, nearly two-thirds (62%) of people identified as having dementia or Alzheimer s disease were living in a health establishment such as a nursing home, an aged care hostel, or the cared component of a retirement village (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2012). People with dementia experience problems with communicative, cognitive and emotional tasks. 2. Immediate issues ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Her cognitive decline has an effect on her quality of life and function due to problems of memory, planning, language and attention. There is a risk of malnutrition as Wander is unable to feed herself and is reported to be refusing her meals hence, needing to be fed. The presence of verbal and physical aggression towards care staff is a challenging concern that needs immediate intervention for her safety and that of care staff. The patient has insomnia and this could be contributing to her aggression. She is reported to be calling out in both Polish and English and this indicates that she is having communication problems and this could be a barrier causing her to be frustrated as he cannot communicate her needs effectively. Wanda has a history of arthritis and pain is another issue for her that may be causing aggression. According to Ahn Horgas, (2014) pain in dementia is positively correlated with disruptive behaviours i.e. aggre ssion and agitation. 3. Stages of AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s is an irreversible disease normally affecting the elderly population and is progressive in nature causing degeneration that leads to impairments in memory, reasoning, planning, and behaviour. It is a neurodegenerative disorder that adversely affects neurons in the brain, ultimately resulting in loss of memory and language, behavioural disturbances, and dependence on caregivers (Phillips, Baktir, Das, Lin Salehi, 2015, p. 1047). AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s has 3
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Commonwealth Serum Laboratories. Answer: Company Description Commonwealth Serum Laboratories (CSL) is bio therapeutics company. It researches, manufactures new and innovative biotherapies used to save lives of people. Paul Perreault is the chief executive officer. The salary of Paul Perreault is $1771920 and he receives a bonus of 1139000 making the total compensation to be 2910920. The last dividend was paid by the company on 24th March of 81 cents AUD or 58cents in USD. The total assets of the company is $ 6401m in 2015. The company has more than 14000 employees and 1100 experts in the research and development areas. The 52 week high share price is 117.61 and the low share price is 85.40. Excel Spreadsheet Date Closing value CSL 4/29/2016 105.18 4/28/2016 103.94 4/27/2016 104.06 4/26/2016 104.38 4/25/2016 104.65 4/22/2016 104.65 4/21/2016 105 4/20/2016 104.25 4/19/2016 103.5 4/18/2016 103.37 4/15/2016 101.58 4/14/2016 99.93 4/13/2016 100.59 4/12/2016 100 4/11/2016 100.19 4/8/2016 101.25 4/7/2016 101.44 4/6/2016 100.35 4/5/2016 99.39 4/4/2016 101.31 4/1/2016 101 3/31/2016 101.44 3/30/2016 100.36 3/29/2016 98.57 3/28/2016 102.2 3/25/2016 102.2 3/24/2016 102.2 3/23/2016 100.63 3/22/2016 101.67 3/21/2016 100.5 3/18/2016 100.1 3/17/2016 101.85 3/16/2016 102.3 3/15/2016 102.35 3/14/2016 103.59 3/11/2016 103.58 3/10/2016 103.15 3/9/2016 104.7 3/8/2016 102.43 3/7/2016 103.15 Date Closing value of ASX 200 29-Apr-16 5,252.20 28-Apr-16 5,225.40 27-Apr-16 5,187.70 26-Apr-16 5,220.60 22-Apr-16 5,236.40 21-Apr-16 5,272.70 20-Apr-16 5,216.00 19-Apr-16 5,188.80 18-Apr-16 5,137.10 15-Apr-16 5,157.50 14-Apr-16 5,118.60 13-Apr-16 5,054.70 12-Apr-16 4,975.60 11-Apr-16 4,931.50 8-Apr-16 4,937.60 7-Apr-16 4,964.10 6-Apr-16 4,945.90 5-Apr-16 4,924.40 4-Apr-16 4,995.30 1-Apr-16 4,999.40 31-Mar-16 5,082.80 30-Mar-16 5,010.30 29-Mar-16 5,004.50 24-Mar-16 5,084.20 23-Mar-16 5,142.30 22-Mar-16 5,166.60 21-Mar-16 5,166.60 18-Mar-16 5,183.10 17-Mar-16 5,168.20 16-Mar-16 5,119.00 15-Mar-16 5,111.40 14-Mar-16 5,185.50 11-Mar-16 5,166.40 10-Mar-16 5,150.10 9-Mar-16 5,157.20 8-Mar-16 5,108.00 7-Mar-16 5,142.80 29-Apr-16 5,252.20 28-Apr-16 5,225.40 27-Apr-16 5,187.70 Overview It can be seen that the CSL shares performed similarly to the ASX200. With the decline of the ASX200, the share prices of CSL also declined till April and later both increased in similar proportions. 1. The major news for CSL for the given period are: 2. The company CSL Behring awards LEAD grants to help rare disease patient groups. The share price increased by 2.2% on 9th 3. The company announced dividends on 24th March and the share prices increased by 1.56%. 4. The share price decreased by 3.55% on 29th The ASX200 decreased by 98 points on the same day. 5. The company announced medicine for Hemophilia B in US on 21st The share prices increased after declining continuously for a week. 6. CSL Behring celebrates 100 years on 25th The prices increased by 1.1% on this day. The news have been published on Wsjcom. (2016). Wsjcom. Retrieved from https://quotes.wsj.com/AU/XASX/CSL Gain from shares Share Price on 7th March = $103.15 Thus Number of shares of CSL purchased for $5000= 48.47 ~48 shares The price of the shares on 29th April = $105.18 Thus the total price of the shares = 48*105.18 = 5048.64 Thus profit from the shares = $48.64 Buy/ Sell shares The company has started growing again with the increase in shares prices. The calculation of various ratios shows that the company has improved its profitability ratios and the net profits has also increased compared to previous year. The company is one of the biggest player in the industry and has huge growth potential. Also the company has acquired Novartis Influenza will help company increase sales and the company has planned huge investments in RD. Thus in the coming future, the company will be able to capitalize on these investments. Hence it makes more sense to hold on the current investments. Key Financial Data 2015 US$m Revenue 5458.6 Interest Expense 59.6 EBIT 1773.6 Net Profit Before Tax 1714 Net Profit After Tax 1379 Current Assets 3339.1 Total Assets 6401 Current Liabilities 936.1 Total Liabilities 3654.1 Total Equity 2746.9 Ratio Analysis Profitability Ratio The following are the profitability ratios Gross margin ratio = Gross profit/ Total sales Operating margin = Operating profit/ Total sales Return on Assets = Average total Assets/ Total sales For CSL, CSL 2015 2014 Gross Margin 0.522607 0.511884 Return on assets 1.161351 1.176745 Operating margin 0.314 0.300724 It can be seen that the gross margin of the company has increased since the last year. Thus the company has reduced the additional expenses and increased profitability. The operating margin has also improved. Thus the costs related to the sales and other administrative expenses are better utilized to improve profits. The return on assets tell the additionally increase in sales due to additional assets by the company. The return on assets has decreased. Thus the company should focus on utilizing its assets in a better way to improve the net profits. The biggest competitor of CSL is Baxter. The profitability ratios of Baxter are Baxter 2015 Gross Margin 0.415931 Return on assets 2.363212 Operating margin 0.045044 CSL has performed better than Baxter in case of profitability margin but the company needs to utilize its assets in a better way. Activity ratio The following are the Activity ratios Inventory Turnover ratio = Cost of goods sold/ Average Inventory Total assets turnover = Sales / Average total assets Accounts Payable to sales ratio = Accounts Payable/ Sales For CSL, 2015 2014 Inventory turnover 1.532 1.583 Total assets turnover 0.861 0.849 Accounts Payable to sales ratio 0.128 0.118 Thus the figures of activity ratio shows that the company has decreased inventory ratio compared to last year. Thus the company had more capital tied up in the inventory compared to last year. The accounts payable to sales ratios shows that the company has more creditors per unit of sale. Thus the creditors are willing to lend more to the company. Thus overall the company has improved since last year. Baxter 2015 Inventory turnover 3.660 Total assets turnover 0.423 Accounts Payable to sales ratio 0.267 Comparing with Baxter, it can be seen the company has better activity ratios than CSL. Liquidity Ratio The following are the Activity ratios For CSL, 2015 2014 Current ratio 3.567 3.795 Quick Ratio 1.692 1.848 Interest times earned ratio 29.758 31.270 All the ratios have decreased when compared to the previous year. The higher the current and quick ratio, the better it is for company to pay its current liabilities. The company should focus on improving its Liquidity ratio which might be low because of its acquisition of Novartis Influenza Baxter 2015 Current ratio 2.051 Quick Ratio 1.773 Interest times earned ratio 3.563 Comparing with Baxter, CSL has better interest earned ratio and current ratio than that of Baxter. However, the company has more investment in inventory which reduces its quick ratio References Accounts Payable (A/P) to sales ratio. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/accounts-payable-A-P-to-sales-ratio.html Profitability Ratios. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.myaccountingcourse.com/financial-ratios/profitability-ratios Liquidity ratios. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.investopedia.com/terms/l/liquidityratios.asp Activity ratios. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.investopedia.com/terms/a/activityratio.asp Profitability Ratios. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/profitabilityratios.asp Corporate Profile CSL. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.csl.com.au/s1/cs/auhq/1187378980806/content/1255929310417/content.htm Baxter annual report 2015. Retrieved from https://investor.baxter.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=86121p=irol-reportsannual Yahoo finance. (n.d). Retrieved from https://au.finance.yahoo.com/q/hp?s=ASX.AX